CODE OF COLLECTION 收集守則

The Committee of the Hong Kong Lepidopterists’ Society considers that with the ever increasing loss of habitats resulting from industrial, urban and residential developments and recreational activities, the point has been reached where a code for collecting should be considered in the interests of conservation of the Hong Kong Lepidoptera fauna, particularly macrolepidoptera and species suspected of being endemic to Hong Kong. The Committee considers that in many areas this loss has gone so far that collecting, which at one time would have had a minor effect, could now affect the in-situ survival of one or more species if collected without restraint, or even at all in some cases.

The Committee also believes that by subscribing to a code of collecting, its members will show themselves to be a concerned and responsible body of naturalists who have a positive contribution to make to the cause of conservation. All Society members are required to accept the following Code in principle and to observe it in practice. Failure to do so will result in expulsion from the Society.

Note: the HKLS Code of Lepidoptera Collecting is an adapted version of the Joint Committee for the Conservation of British Insects’ “Code for Insect Collecting”


1. Collection – General

1.1 No more specimens than are strictly required for any purpose should be killed. 1.2 Readily identified insects should not be killed if the object is to ‘look them over’ for aberrations or other purposes: insects should be examined when alive and then released where they were captured.
1.3 The same species should not be taken in numbers year after year from the same locality.
1.4 Supposed or actual predators and parasites of Lepidoptera should not be destroyed.
1.5 When collecting leaf-mines, galls and seed heads never collect all that can be found; leave as many as possible to allow the population to recover.
1.6 Consideration should be given to photography as an alternative to collecting, particularly in the case of butterflies.
1.7 Specimens for exchange, or disposal to other collectors should be taken sparingly or not at all.
1.8 For commercial purposes insects should either be bred or obtained from old collections. Lepidoptera specimens should not be used for the manufacture of ‘jewellery’.

2. Collecting – Rare and Endangered Species

2.1 Specimens of macrolepidoptera listed by this Committee (and published in the entomological journals) should be collected with the greatest restraint. As a guide, the Committee suggests that a pair of specimens is sufficient, but that those specimens in the greatest danger should not be collected at all. The list may be amended from time to time if this proves to be necessary.
2.2 Specimens of distinct local forms of macrolepidoptera, particularly butterflies, should likewise be collected with restraint.
2.3 Collectors should attempt to break new ground rather than collect a local or rare species from a well-known and perhaps overworked locality.
2.4 Previously unknown localities for rare species should be brought to the attention of this Committee, which undertakes to inform other organisations as appropriate and only in the interests of conservation.

3. Collecting – Lights and Light traps

3.1 The ‘catch’ at light, particularly in a trap, should not be killed casually for subsequent examination.
3.2 Live trapping, for instance in traps filled with egg-tray material, is the preferred method of collecting. Anaesthetics are harmful and should not be used.
3.3 Ideally, the catch should be examined and released before dawn. If this is not possible, the insects should be kept in cool, shady conditions and released away from the trap site at dusk. If this is not possible the insects should be released in long grass or other cover and not on lawns or bare surfaces.
3.4 Unwanted insects should not be fed to fish or insectivorous birds and mammals.
3.5 If a trap used for scientific purposes is found to be catching rare or localised species unnecessarily it should be re-sited.
3.6 Traps and lights should be sites with care so as not to annoy neighbours or cause confusion (e.g. near a road where it may distract a road-users vision)

4. Collecting – Permission and Conditions

4.1 Always seek permission from the landowner or occupier when collecting on private land and obtain the appropriate permits when collecting on nature reserves or government land.
4.2 Always comply with any conditions laid down by the granting of permission to collect.
4.3 When collecting on nature reserves, or sites of known interest to conservationists, supply a list of species collected to the appropriate authority.
4.4 When collecting on nature reserves it is particularly important to observe the code suggested in Section 5.

5. Collecting – Damage to the Environment

5.1 Do as little damage to the environment as possible. Remember the needs of other flora and fauna.
5.2 When ‘beating’ for larvae never thrash trees and bushes so that foliage and twigs are removed. A sharp jarring of branches is both less damaging and more effective.
5.3 When working dead timber one should replace removed bark and worked materials to the best of one ability. Not all the dead wood in a locality should be worked.
5.4 Overturned stones and logs should be replaced in their original positions.
5.5 Water weed and moss which has been worked for larvae should be replaced in its appropriate habitat. Plant material in litter heaps should be replaced and not scattered about.
5.6 Twigs, small branches and foliage required as foodplants or because they are galled, e.g. by Sesiidae, should be removed neatly with secateurs or scissors and not broken off.
5.7 ‘Sugar’ should not be applied so that it renders tree-trunks and other vegetation unnecessarily unsightly.
5.8 Exercise particular care when working for rare species, e.g. by searching for larvae rather than beating for them.
5.9 Remember the Country code!

6. Breeding

6.1 Breeding from a fertilised female or pairing in captivity is preferable to taking a series of specimens in the field.
6.2 Never collect more larvae or other livestock than can be supported by the available supply of foodplant.
6.3 Unwanted insects that have been reared should be released in the original locality, not just anywhere.
6.4 Before undertaking introductions, re-introductions or re-establishments of Lepidoptera populations please consult this Committee.

雖然在某些時候,採集樣本的影響是有限,但考慮到現今由工業、城市及住宅發展,以及消閒活動所造成不斷的生境消失,己經到達到一個純粹採集樣本都能影響到單種或多種物種在該地生存的階段 ( 假若在採集並沒有克制的情況下 ) ,因此本會委員認為我們必須考慮一採集手則,以作為保育香港的鱗翅目昆蟲,尤其是那些大鱗翅類及懷疑是本港的獨有種。

本會亦相信,透過同意這份採集守則,本會會員將成為一個關心環境及有責任心的自然愛好者,為保育作出正面的貢獻。本會所有會員必須原則上接受以下的採集守則及實際上奉行此守則。如未能接受及遵守該守則,本會有權將有關會員之會籍開除。

注意:本會所採用的鱗翅目昆蟲採集守則是改編自 英國昆蟲保育聯合會 “Joint Committee for the Conservation of British Insects” 所制定的昆蟲採集守則 “Code for Insect Collecting”。以下是本會 鱗翅目昆蟲採集守則的摘要,如有任何爭議,以英文版本為正。

1. 一般採集

1.1 除非有任何必要的目的,否則不可殺死任何樣本。

1.2 除非要仔細檢查昆蟲的變形或其他目的,否則不可殺死能即時被鑑定之昆蟲:所有昆蟲必須在仍生存時被檢查,及在所採集之地方放生。

1.3 不可每一年都在同一地點採集多隻同一品種之昆蟲。

1.4 不可殺死任何真正或假定的鱗翅目昆蟲捕獵者及寄生蟲。

1.5 當發現有坑道的葉、蟲癭或種子球時,不可全數採集;應當盡可能留下一部份,以容許族群的復原。

1.6 應把攝影作為採集樣本的另一選擇,尤其是蝴蝶。

1.7 應當減少進行標本的交換或出售,甚至停止該等活動。

1.8 應當利用人工繁殖的昆蟲或舊有的昆蟲標本作商業用途。鱗翅目昆蟲標本不可用作製造“珠寶或首飾” 。

 

2. 採集稀有及瀕

2.1 採集由委員會所列出及在昆蟲學期刊中所公報的大鱗翅目昆蟲樣本時必須克制。作為一指引,委員會認為一對的樣本經已足夠。但不應採集任何稀有及瀕危種。如經證實,名單內所列之鱗翅目昆蟲可被更改。

2.2 對一些 大鱗翅類的本地獨有形態 (尤其是蝴蝶) 而言,樣本的採集亦必須受到管制。

2.3 採集者必須放棄於眾所周知的或可能已被過度採集的地方採集獨有或稀有種。採集者應嘗試另覓新的採集地點。

2.4 發現稀有種的未知地點應當向委員會匯報,委員會隨後會通知其他適當的組織作保育用途。

3. 利用光與光源誘捕器採集

3.1 利用光與光源誘捕器所採集的樣本不得隨便殺死,以便作隨後的考查。

3.2 建議採用活捉的方法,如利用載了盛蛋匣的誘捕器,去採集樣本。不可使用麻醉的方法,因此方法對昆蟲有害。

3.3 理論上,所採集之樣本需於黎明之前考查及放生。如情況不許可,可置樣本於陰涼的地方,並於黃昏時在所捕捉的地方放生。假若忘記誘捕器的原來位置,樣本應當在有長草或其他遮蔽的地方放生,而不應選擇草地及其他暴露的地方。

3.4 不需要的樣本不應用來餵養魚類或者其他以昆蟲為食的雀鳥及哺乳類動物。

3.5 假若發現科學研究用的誘捕器不必要地採集到稀有或本地種,應當另覓地方再作研究。

3.6 光與光源誘捕器應小心設置,不應騷擾附近之人士或導致混亂 ( 如於馬路旁設置會誤導了道路使用者)。

4. 採集的准許與條款

4.1 當於私人土地採集樣本時,需問准土地擁有者或佔有者。而於自然保護區或政府地土上進行採集時,需獲得有關的許可證。

4.2 遵從在准許採集樣本下的任何條款。

4.3 在自然保護區內或在一些受到環保人士關心的地方採集樣本後,需向有關機構提供一份樣本名單。

4.4 當在自然保護採集樣本時,須特別留意以下守則的第五項。

5. 破壞環境的採集

5.1 請緊記其他生物的需要,盡力減少破壞環境。

5.2 採集在樹枝上的幼蟲時,不應猛烈搖動樹木,以致枝葉斷落。一下快速的震動會比較有效及破壞性較低。

5.3 在已死的木材上進行考查後,請盡力把已除去或破壞掉的木料放回原處。不應將同一地點的所有已死木材作採樣。

5.4 在考查後,應把被翻轉了的石頭及木頭放回原處。

5.5 應把已考查完的水草及苔蘚類植物放回適當的生境。而枯葉堆中的植物物質則放回枯葉堆中,但並不是隨便分散掉回枯葉堆上。

5.6 當要把樹枝或葉子割下作幼蟲食料,或發現枝葉上有 蟲癭 (例如由透翅蛾科飛蛾所造成的 ),要割下來考查時,應當使用枝剪或剪刀把枝葉整齊剪下,而不應將枝葉折斷。

5.7 不應利用人工花蜜,因這會令樹幹或其他植物變得不必要的難看。

5.8 當考查稀有種時,應當特別小心,例如:用肉眼搜尋幼蟲,比 搖動樹木以獲得幼蟲為佳。

5.9 請緊記郊野守則!

6. 人工繁殖

6.1 建議由已受精的雌性或飼養中的一對得來的子嗣作樣本,這樣較於野外採集大量樣本為佳。

6.2 沒有足夠的食物便不應採集過多的幼蟲或活口。

6.3 飼養了不需要的昆蟲時,應當把牠們在所捕捉之處放生。

6.4 在進行引入、再引入鱗翅目昆蟲物種或再建立鱗翅目昆蟲的族群時,請與本會商討。

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